Acoustic Emission Study of Martensitic
& Bainitic Transformations in Carbon Steel


By Stefanus Matheus Cornelis Van Bohemen
May 2004
Delft University Press
ISBN: 90-407-2477-6
160 pages, Illustrated, 6 " x 9 "
$57.50 Paper Original


This is a Ph.D. dissertation. Acoustic emission (AE) is the name given to the phenomenon of elastic waves being generated by the rapid release of strain energy from localized sources within a material. As an AE event occurs at a source, elastic waves are generated and propagate in all directions and ultimately reach the surface of the material.

Phenomena that are classified today as an acoustic emission have been observed since the beginning of technology. For example during pottery making the potters learned to associate the sound of pottery cracking as it cooled with the formation of cracks in their creations. Another familiar example of audible acoustic emissions is the so-called 'tin cry,' heard by tin smiths during the deformation of tin, which is due to mechanical twinning.

These observations date back to approximately 3000 BC. The first documented observation of acoustic emission during forging of steel (iron) was made in the eighth century by an Arabian alchemist. These audible emissions were most likely produced by the formation of martensitic microstructure was observed for the first time by the German metallurgist Adolf Martens (1850-1914). In 1936 Forster and Scheil reported that the martensitic transformation in steel is accompanied by "clicks." This may be considered as the first study of acoustic emission during martensite formation.

Contents include: Acoustic emission and phase transformations, Experimental, Acoustic emission monitoring of phase transformations in steel, A study of acoustic emission energy generated during bainite and martensite formation, Kinetics of the martensitic transformation studied by means of acoustic emission, Analysis of acoustic emission signals originating from bainite and martensite formation.

Materials Science

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