Mark A. Awabdy provides a nuanced and extensive understanding of the noun גר ( gēr , engl. immigrant) in the book of Deuteronomy (D). He argues that a precise reconstruction of the historical referents of D’s gēr is impossible and has led scholars to misread or overlook literary, theological, and sociological determinants. By analyzing D’s gēr texts and contexts, evidence emerges for: the non-Israelite and non-Judahite origins of D’s gēr ; the distinction between the gēr in D’s prologue-epilogue and legal core; and the different meanings and origins of D’s " gēr -in-Egypt" and " ‘ebed -in-Egypt" formulae. Awabdy further contends that D’s revision of Exodus’ Decalogue and Covenant Code and independence from H reveal D’s tendencies to accommodate the gēr and interface the gēr with YHWH’s redemption of Israel. He concludes by defining how D integrates the gēr into the community of YHWH’s people.