Translated from Sanskrit By Nandalal Sinha
December 2003, Reprint of 1915 Edition
Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
770 pages, Illustrated, 5 ¾" x 8 ¾"
Containing (1) Samkhya-pravachansutram, with the Vritti of Aniruddha, and the Bhasya of Vijnanabhiksu and Extracts from the Vrittisara of Mahadeva Vedantin; (2) Tatvasamasa; (3) Samkhyakarika; (4) Panchasikhasutram. The Samkhya of Kapila has influenced every school of Indian philosophy. Among the treatises explaining its teachings, only two have survived intact, the rest being either in fragments or totally lost. One of these, the Samkhya-pravachana-sutram with two commentaries by Aniruddha and Vijnanabhiksu form the body of this book, and the others Kapila-sutram, Samkhya-karika or Isvarakrisna and Panchisikha-sutram are given in appendices.
The Samkhya relies on the ruler of logic for establishing the validityof its tenets. Its object is to differentiate between the soul and the non-soul. It starts with the primordial cause called prakriti or pradhana which resulted in this world. It has put forward a theory of evolution to explain all objects, animate and inanimate, of this world as an infinite number of permutations and combinations of the three gunas - sattva, rajas, and tamas. Its essence consists of two principles: Prakriti and Pursusa. It opposes Vedic sacrifices but not the Vedas. It does not deny God but states that His existence cannot be proved. Its importance can be gauged from the fact that the Vedantasutra devotes sixty out of a hundred and three aphorisms to refute its doctrines. The appendices provide all the available texts with indices for aphorisms and words. The translation, with its lucid explanation of the texts and commentaries, brings the ideas of the renowned Samkhya within reach of all.
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